Урок-погружение в культуру средневековой Руси по теме Московский Кремль
- Каракай Лариса Павловна, учитель английского языка
1) познакомить учеников с историей Кремля;
2) воспитать интерес к истории, желание узнавать
новое, чувство гордости за свою Родину;
3) развивать логическое мышление, умение
Тип урока: урок-исследование.
Межпредметные связи: с историей, математикой,
Оборудование: распечатка текста с пропусками
(каждому ученику); карта Кремля (каждому ученику)
иллюстрации: набор открыток “Московский
Кремль”; видеофильм “Сердце Москвы”.
I. “Разминка”: Что значит
древнерусское слово “кремль”? (Крепость)
Где можно увидеть кремль? (В старинных русских
городах, но самый красивый – в Москве)
II. Дотекстовые задания.
a. Прочитать, перевести названия всех башен и 3
соборов, найти их на карте Кремля.
b. В тексте о Московском Кремле с пропусками:
определить век по указанному году, сосчитать по
плану количество башен защитных стен.
c. Вписать полученные данные в текст.
III. Чтение, перевод, комментирование текста о
Кремле, нахождение на карте объектов,
рассматривание и комментирование иллюстраций.
THE MOSCOW KREMLIN
In the Old Russian language the word “kremlin” means “a fortress” or “a
citadel”. There are a lot of kremlins in old Russian cities, like Suzdal, Yaroslavl,
Nizhny Novgorod and others.
But the Kremlin in Moscow is the most beautiful and famous of all. It is the oldest
part of Moscow and the heart of Moscow. The Kremlin is the place where Moscow was born.
The Kremlin didn’t always look the way it does today. The first Kremlin was small,
only one-twentieth of the territory it occupies now. It was rebuilt a lot of times.
The Kremlin was once an island fortress as it was surrounded by water: by the Moskva
River and the Neglinnaya River (which now flows through a tunnel under Alexandrovsky
Garden). The Kremlin’s main function in the past was to defend the people from the
In 1156 (= century) a small settlement of Moscow (a small estate of Prince Yuri
Dolgoruky – Yuri the Long-armed) was surrounded with a wooden wall and became a
town with a fortress – that is a kremlin. The first Kremlin walls were made of oak logs
35-40 centimetres thick. The total length of the walls was about 1,200 metres.
In 1339-1340 (= century), during the reign of Ivan Kalita, new and strong Kremlin walls
were built from oak logs with a girth of up to 70 centimetres.
In 1367 young Prince Dmitry Donskoy built a white stone wall around the Kremlin.
The area occupied by the fortress was enlarged to almost its present size. The Kremlin
became a first-class fortress, one of the mightiest fortresses in Europe which withstood
many enemy attacks. It was a reliable protection for the Muscovites.
It was in 1485-1495 (= century) that the present-day imposing brick walls and
towers of the Kremlin appeared. New brick walls completed the roughly triangular shape of
the present Kremlin. The total length of the Kremlin walls was 2,235 metres (1.5 miles).
The height of the walls varied between 5 and 19 metres (55 feet), the thickness – from
3.5 to 6.5 metres (15 feet). The walls were decorated with 1045 merlons (зубцами).
The new fortress had 19 towers (the 20th tower – the so-called Tsar Tower –
was built in 1680) different in shape and size, and several entrances. The Kremlin became
the residence of the Russian grand dukes (князей), and then tsars. Now the Kremlin
is the residence of the Russian government (правительство). It occupies about
28 hectares (64 acres).
The Kremlin walls are joined by ___ towers. The Secret (Tainitskaya) Tower is the
oldest tower, it was built in 1485 (= century) and had a secret passage (тайный
ход) to the Moskva river. The Trinity (Troitskaya) Tower (1495) is the
highest of them, it is 80 m high, it is a gate-tower and the main entrance to the
Kremlin. It is connected with the Kutafia Tower by bridge. It got its name from the icon
of Trinity (Troitsa) which is placed above the gates. Tsar Tower is the
The Saviour (Spasskaya) Tower (1491) is the most famous tower. It’s the
symbol of the Kremlin and Moscow. The tower got its name from the icon of the Saviour that
formerly hung above this tower gate. It’s a clock tower and one can hear its chimes
(звон, куранты) on the radio (just like Big Ben in London). At first sight the
clock does not seem very large but this impression is an illusion. The clock’s diameter
is 6 m 12 cm and the figures are 72 cm long. The melody is produced by 10 bells the
smallest of which weighs 320 kg and the largest – 2,160 kg.
The first clock was set into the tower in the 16th century. In the 17th
century it was replaced by a chiming clock (часы с боем), made by the English
master Christopher Galloway. The present clock was made in the middle of the 19th
In 1937 the walls and towers were cleaned, five-pointed ruby stars were installed on 5
towers and 27 kg of gold were used to gild the chimes. The weight of the star is from 1up
to 1.5 tons. The size of the rays is from 3 m up to 3.75 m.
Let’s enter the Kremlin. We are in Cathedral (Sobornaya) Square now. It is the oldest
part of the Kremlin. The square witnessed coronations and wedding ceremonies of Russian
tsars, celebrations of the victories of Russian arms and other important events in the
life of Russia. The square is surrounded by cathedrals each of which is a masterpiece of
Old-Russian architecture. There are 3 cathedrals: the Cathedral of the Assumption, the
Cathedral of the Annunciation and the Cathedral of the Archangel.
The Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky Sobor) is one of the oldest stone
churches in Moscow and in the Kremlin. It was built in 1475-1479 (= century). It is
crowned with 5 gilded domes. It was used for the coronations and wedding ceremonies of
Russian tsars. During the war of 1812 the Cathedral of the Assumption was practically
stripped by Napoleon’s troops who took away more than 5 tons of silver and 288 kg of
The Cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveshchensky Sobor) was built in 1484-1489
(= century). Originally it was a small brick church with 3 domes. In the middle of the 16th
century 4 small single-domed churches and 2 false domes were built. The result was a
picturesque nine-domed cathedral. It is rather small because it was used as a home church
of Russian tsars.
The Cathedral of the Archangel (Arkhangelsky Sobor) was built in 1505-1508
century). It is a five-domed cathedral made of brick. For more than 200 years it was
the last resting-place of tsars. It was a state necropolis and all Russian tsars were
buried there. There are 46 tombs in all.
The two Kremlin squares – the Sobornaya and the Ivanovskaya – are divided by the
Bell Tower (колокольня) of Ivan the Great. It is with the wide, spacious
Ivanovskata Ploshchad (Ivan’s Square) that the saying, so popular with the people, came
into being: “To screech (кричать) for the whole of Ivanovskaya to hear”.
The Bell Tower (колокольня) of Ivan the Great was built in 1505-1508 (=
It was planned to unite the Kremlin palaces and churches compositionally and also to be
the main watch-tower of the fortress. For a long time it remained the tallest building in
Moscow (81 metres), from which the surrounding land could be observed in a radius of 20-30
km. At present it has 21 big and 30 small bells, the largest weighing about 70 tons. Each
bell has its own name. (Медведь, Ревун, Голодарь. А самый
большой, весом 4 тыс. пудов, – Успенский)
The Moscow Kremlin is a striking monument to Russian history and culture and a symbol
Ключ: 1) the 12th; 2) the 14th; 3) the 15th;
4) 20; 5) the 15th; 6) the 15th; 7) the 15th; 8) the 16th;
9) the 16th.
IV. Просмотр видеофильма о Кремле “Сердце
V. Послетекстовые задания.
A) Викторина о Кремле.
“YOU SHOULD KNOW” QUIZ/ ВИКТОРИНА “ЭТО ВЫ
1. What does the word “kremlin” mean? – Что значит слово
2. Is the Moscow Kremlin the only kremlin in Russia? – Московский
Кремль единственный кремль в России? (Нет)
3. How old is the Moscow Kremlin? How old is Moscow? – Сколько лет
московскому Кремлю? (852) Сколько лет Москве? (861)
4. How long are the Kremlin walls? – Какова длина кремлёвских
стен? (2235 м)
5. How many towers are there on the Kremlin walls? –Сколько башен на
кремлёвских стенах? (20)
6. What is the oldest Kremlin Tower? When was it built? – Какая самая
старая кремлёвская башня? Когда она была
построена? (Тайницкая , XV век)
7. Which is the tallest Kremlin Tower? – Какая самая высокая
кремлёвская башня? (Троицкая, 80)
8. Which is the smallest Kremlin Tower? – Какая самая маленькая
кремлёвская башня? (Царская)
9. Which is the most famous Kremlin Tower? – Какая самая известная
кремлёвская башня? (Спасская)
10. How big is the Kremlin Clock? – Насколько велики
кремлёвские часы? (Диаметр – 6 м)
11. What is the oldest square of Moscow? –Какая самая старая
площадь Москвы? (Соборная)
12. How many Cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin do you know? – Сколько
соборов московского Кремля ты знаешь? (3)
13. Where were the Russian tsars buried? – Где похоронены русские
цари? (в Архангельском соборе)
B) Сравните две крепости – Лондонский Тауэр и
Московский Кремль (смотрите текст и план Тауэра
в материалах “Фестиваля открытых уроков 2006-2007”:
Каракай Л.П. Урок-погружение в культуру
средневековья по теме: “Лондонский Тауэр –
Что общего между ними? Чем они отличаются?
THE TOWER OF LONDON AND THE MOSCOW KREMLIN
|The Tower of London||
The Moscow Kremlin
1.They are both ancient.
2. They were built on the hill(s).
3. They were built on the bank of the river(s).
4. All the Towers have names.
5. They were both fortresses and became museums
1. Number of towers.
2.Number of circles.
3. Shape of towers.
4. Form of fortresses.
It was built in the 11th century.
There are 22 towers.
There are 2 circles of walls.
It has more circular towers.
It has the form of an irregular pentagon.
It has never been seriously put to the test.
It occupies 7,2 ha
The walls are not decorated.
There are chapels.
It was built in the 12th century.
It was built on Borovitsky (Pine-Grove) Hill.
The Moskva river and the Neglinnaya
The wall was rebuilt a lot of times.
It was wooden, white stone and now it is red brick.
There are 20 towers.
There is one circle of walls.
It has more square towers (and only 3 circular towers).
It has the roughly triangular shape.
It withstood many enemy attacks.
It occupies 28 ha
(The Moscow Kremlin is much bigger.)
The walls are decorated with 1045 merlons.
There are ruby stars on 5 towers.
There is a chiming clock.
There are 3 wonderful cathedrals.
(The Moscow Kremlin is much more beautiful.)
VI. Рефлексия учеников:
Я узнал …
Я сделал открытие (для себя) …
Хочу ещё самостоятельно узнать…
Хочу посетить этим летом Кремль, потому что…
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Вакс Э.П. Дух России. – Санкт-Петербург:
2. Перешивалова И.В. Экскурсии по Москве на
английском языке. – М.: Чистые пруды, 2007.
3. Рожкова Ф.В., Русанова С.В. Экскурсия по Москве.
Пособие по английскому языку для неязыковых
вузов: Учебное пособие. – М.: Высшая школа, 1980.
4. Брюсова Н.Г. Москва. – М.: Дрофа; Русский язык,